Court Grills SEC Over Costly Conflict Minerals Rule

The agency defends its policy.

, The National Law Journal


Artisanal miners dig for gold outside of Mongbwalu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Artisanal miners dig for gold outside of Mongbwalu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

One of the most controversial — and costly — rules in U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission history is under scrutiny by a panel of federal appellate judges, who questioned whether the requirement that publicly traded companies disclose the use of certain minerals from the war-torn Democratic Republic of the Congo violates the First Amendment.

"Is the objective to stigmatize companies?" Senior Judge A. Raymond Randolph of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit asked during oral arguments last week before a packed courtroom in Wash­ington. Randolph described the disclosure requirement as "a slippery slope."

The National Association of Manufacturers, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the Business Round­table in October 2012 challenged the SEC's so-called "conflict minerals" rule, which Congress directed the agency to implement as part of the Dodd-Frank Act. Amnesty International, represented by Public Citizen Litigation Group, intervened on the side of the SEC.

The business groups lost the first round in July, when U.S. District Judge Robert Wilkins upheld the rule. Wilkins found "no problems with the SEC's rulemaking" or any First Amendment violation. But the D.C. Circuit panel, which also included Judge Sri Srinivasan and Senior Judge David Sentelle, seemed skeptical of how the SEC implemented the rule and the underlying law itself.

Intended to cut off funding for warlords and promote peace in the troubled region, the statute requires companies to investigate and disclose whether their products contain tin, tungsten, tantalum or gold from the Democratic Republic of the Congo or its neighbors. The minerals are used in a vast number of products, ranging from light bulbs to computers to sewing thread.

The business groups assert that ­initial compliance would cost $3 billion to $4 billion, and they question whether it would actually help the people of Congo.

Even within the SEC, the rule is controversial. Two commissioners voted against it, and SEC Chairwoman Mary Jo White, appointed after the rule was enacted, in a recent speech at Fordham University School of Law also expressed reservations.

Seeking to end human rights atrocities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is a compelling objective, "which, as a citizen, I wholeheartedly share," White said. "But, as the chair of the SEC, I must question, as a policy matter, using the federal securities laws and the SEC's powers of mandatory disclosure to accomplish these goals." However, she also noted that the agency "cannot say that a law does not comport with our mission as we see it, and ignore a congressional mandate."


The business groups, represented by Sidley Austin partner Peter Keisler, argue the SEC could have made compliance less burdensome by exempting companies that use just a trace amount of the minerals. For example, Keisler told the D.C. Circuit judges, General Motors Co. uses tin as a catalyst in making seat belts, a process that may leave a residue of 1 or 2 parts per million of the mineral.

"GM has to trace that speck of tin" back to the mine where it came from, Keisler said. "It's the kind of situation that cries out for a thoughtful, sensible approach."

Still, the judges didn't seem convinced that the SEC violated the Administrative Procedure Act by failing to create such an exception. Keisler acknowledged there were no precedents in which a regulation by any agency was struck down for that reason. "You're asking us to really break new ground here," Sentelle said.

"We're not asking the court to order the commission to adopt a de minimis exception," Keisler said, but rather to hold that the SEC's analysis did "not qualify as reasoned decision-making."

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